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Steve Wozniak: un pionero integral

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Steve Wozniak es conocido en todo el mundo por ser cofundador de Apple en 1976. La compañía de la manzana marcó el camino para otras empresas en Silicon Valley mediante sus  avances técnicos.  Los cuales significan un antes y un después en el mundo de las computadoras personales.

 

Mientras Steve Jobs se dedicó a las estrategias de negocios, Woz era la mente maestra detrás de la tecnología. La idea principal fue crear máquinas fáciles y divertidas de manejar. Pero Wozniak ha sido mucho más que ‘solo’ eso. Es también un reconocido filántropo y un visionario motivador de las innovaciones educativas.

 

Los primeros años del joven genio

Stephen Gary Wozniak nació en San José, California, Estados Unidos, el 11 de agosto de 1950. Su padre fue un ingeniero, su madre una ama de casa de tres niños. A finales de 1957 la familia Wozniak se mudó a Sunnyvale, California. En esa época el pequeño Steven ya evidenciaba fascinación por los aparatos electrónicos.

 

Sus padres de Steve notaron la habilidad que tenía para ensamblar circuitos y reparar artículos eléctricos (radios, por ejemplo). En consecuencia le regalaron un kit de implementos como switches, luces y tableros con los cuales experimentó muchas técnicas. Uno de sus primeros inventos fue un electrolito para comprobar la certeza científica.


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El aparato consistía de dos baterías de carbono conectadas a un circuito automático más un bulbo iluminado con respuestas. Este invento le significó a Wozniak muchos halagos y galardones debido a su pasión creativa. Más adelante desarrolló una pantalla de luces que era capaz de mostrar todas las posiciones de un electrón sobre un átomo.

 

Cuando el pequeño Steve apenas estaba en sexto grado ya tenía experiencia en física, química y computación. Durante ese período su padre le enseñó el funcionamiento de los transistores, resistencias, inversores, circuitos y tarjetas lógicas. A través de la empresa Fairchild obtuvieron partes “con defectos cosméticos” de semiconductores.

 

Los directivos de Fairchild estaban muy entusiasmados al ayudar a un niño de la edad de Steve tan interesado en el aprendizaje de semiconductores. Con los centenares de piezas recibidas el Sr. Wozniak pudo instruir aún más al genio en crecimiento. Al respecto, Woz dijo años después “mi padre me enseñó cómo las entradas deciden mediante señales eléctricas.”

 

De esta manera Steve creó el juego ‘tic-tac-toe’ (similar al OXO). Al poco tiempo su padre le consiguió libros sobre Álgebra Booleana. Entonces se fue familiarizando con el desarrollo de sistemas, en la construcción de hardware y en lenguaje binario. Con doce años ya era conocido a nivel regional como un prodigio científico.

 

Wozniak recordó esta etapa con su humor característico en una entrevista posterior. “Hice una calculadora de 10 bits con entradas de botones y salidas iluminadas. Realicé tan buen trabajo que aunque estaba en octavo grado, gané el Premio de (innovaciones) Electrónicas de la Fuerza Aérea. Como resultado, ¡tuve mi primer vuelo en avión!”.

 

Bachillerato y Universidad

Asistió junto con sus hermanos a la  secundaria Homestead, en el distrito de Cupertino. En una zona que luego se convirtió en el centro de Silicon Valley. Allí Wozniak fue parte de un club de electrónica conformado por personas muy talentosas. Muchos de ellos formaron parte del primer equipo de trabajo del Imperio Apple.

 

Homestead también fue el primer punto de encuentro con quien sería su amigo de toda la vida: Steve Jobs. Woz se graduó de bachillerato con honores académicos y calificaciones perfectas. Aplicó para ingresar a dos instituciones de educación superior: la Universidad de Colorado (UC) y al Instituto Tecnológico de California.

 

En Caltech no fue admitido por su supuesta falta de madurez (según el entrevistador). Finalmente ingresó a la UC en Boulder pero no permaneció más de un año allí. Pues sus calificaciones fueron muy malas y mostró un “inaceptable comportamiento disciplinario”. Tras esa enigmática experiencia volvió a Cupertino para estudiar en un instituto local que no cubrió sus necesidades de conocimiento sobre computadoras.

Wozniak en 1983

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Wozniak tuvo que trabajar para poder pagar sus estudios. Su primer empleo en una compañía fue en Telnet (Cupertino) como programador. Obtuvo el puesto por accidente, pues él iba a entrevistarse en otro lugar para ser desarrollador de hardware. Allí le proporcionaron dinero y un automóvil para que pudiese continuar su formación en Berkeley durante un año.

 

El siguiente trabajo de Steve fue en Electroglas como constructor de circuitos integrados. Al cabo de seis meses aprovechó su oportunidad de unirse a Hewlett Packard. Este representó el entorno perfecto para demostrar toda su capacidad como diseñador de sistemas. Uno de sus logros fue la primera calculadora científica de la compañía, la HP-35.

 

El nacimiento del Imperio Apple

Durante su estancia en HP Wozniak comenzó a ensamblar máquinas muy buenas. Esta experiencia lo motivó a construir sus propias computadoras en el garaje de su casa. Transcurría el año 1975 cuando decidió formar una compañía junto a Steve Jobs. Estaba naciendo un imperio cuya meta inicial era fabricar dispositivos para las masas, divertidos, fáciles de usar y aprender.

 

Para lograr arrancar la corporación en 1976, Woz vendió su automóvil y varias de sus máquinas. No obstante, las dudas eran inexistentes porque  él y Jobs se sentían capaces de alcanzar cualquier objetivo. “Cuando empezamos Apple fijamos como pensamiento que nada podía salir mal“, expresó Wozniak en 1984.

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Añadió, “nuestras primeras computadoras no surgieron de la codicia o el ego, sino de un espíritu revolucionario de ayudar a la gente común antes que a las instituciones más poderosas. La cultura de Apple comenzó con productos que marcaron una enorme diferencia sobre la competencia. Fueron las primeras computadoras de bajo costo con pantalla a color, gráficos, sonido y lenguaje de programación…

 

Nuestra visión fue hacerlas útiles en el hogar para las cosas cotidianas de la gente: listas, calendarios, agendas y cartas.” La intención fue crear máquinas duraderas, accesibles al público general. Después de la aparición de la revolucionaria Apple II en 1978, el éxito de la compañía explotó. El resto forma parte de las historias de los logros multimillonarios de las corporaciones en Silicon Valley.

 

Su grandiosa vida ‘post Apple’

Antes de dejar Apple en 1981 para “perseguir” otros sueños, Steve Wozniak dejó enormes contribuciones. La más destacada es el lenguaje de programación BASIC, usado en aplicaciones de software de ColorMath, Checkbook, Star Wars y Atari Breakout. Hacia 1982 ya había fundado pequeñas compañías de software, se estaba dedicando a la filantropía y completó sus estudios en la Universidad de California en Berkeley.


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Entre las actividades benéficas que organizó -con una enorme inversión de capital- está el U.S. Festival. Fue un concierto de rock y naturaleza al estilo Woodstock, sus fondos se destinaron a iniciativas medioambientales y de educación. Igualmente, continuó ligado a Apple “como un empleado”, realizando aportes sustanciales a la Apple III.

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A lo largo de los siguientes años sus principales metas de vida han sido los proyectos educativos y la filantropía. En 1992 invirtió US$ 4.000 por cada niño que recibió una Apple Macintosh PowerBook 170 en su instituto de verano. El éxito de su programa lo impulsó a expandirlo hacia otras escuelas públicas y privadas en EE. UU.

Actualmente, Steve Wozniak es un hombre de familia, fanático de los Golden State Warriors. Ha desarrollado una relación personal muy cercana con sus estudiantes, quienes lo llaman simplemente Steven o Woz. Muchos de ellos afirman que su maestro es un asiduo donador anónimo de causas benéficas. Por ello es considerado “un genio con un corazón de oro” (Hyman, 2001).

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Kuo: New Apple Silicon Macs will include redesigned 14-inch and 16-inch MacBook Pro in 2021

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Ming-Chi Kuo previously said that the first ARM Mac would be a 13.3-inch MacBook Pro and ship before the end of the year, notably before Apple announced the two year transition timeline on the WWDC stage. Today, he follows up with a deeper outlook for the MacBook line as Apple moves from Intel CPUs to custom chips of its own design.

In today’s report, the reputable analyst still expects the 13.3-inch Pro to start shipping in the fourth quarter, but also expects an Apple Silicon-based MacBook Air to go into production around the same time, for a late winter or early spring launch. In 2021, Apple will launch a redesigned MacBook Pro line with 14-inch and 16-inch screen sizes.

Kuo speculates that the cost reductions associated with switching from Intel to Apple CPUs would allow Apple to lower the entry price of the MacBook Air further. Of course, he doesn’t have knowledge about Apple’s marketing or pricing plans.

In regard to the MacBook Pro, many expected Apple to revise the 13.3-inch design this year with a new design that would reduce screen bezels and therefore increase size to about 14-inches, as seen in the current 16-inch MacBook Pro. That did not happen however.

Kuo’s report indicates that the redesign is indeed in the pipeline, but we’ll have to wait at least until the middle of next year. It also suggests an update to the 16-inch’s industrial design is coming. Before then, Apple will release another 13.3-inch hardware refresh which will keep the same industrial design but be powered by Apple Silicon.

It is unclear if there will be an interim update for the 16-inch MacBook Pro. The machine was released to much critical acclaim at the end of 2019, so if there isn’t a refresh before the switch to Apple Silicon, Kuo’s timeline would result in an 18-24 month wait between revisions.

As Kuo was focused on portable machines in today’s analyst note, there was no mention of the previously reported timeline for the release of the ARM 24-inch iMac. Rumors have pointed to a significant iMac redesign in the wings. The general consensus is that there will be a new Intel iMac this year, Apple has confirmed they still have Intel Macs in the pipeline, and the Apple Silicon model will come later.

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Apple TV+ Guide: Here are all the Apple TV shows and movies available now

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Apple TV+ offers exclusive Apple original TV shows and movies in 4K HDR quality. You can watch across all of your screens and pick up where you left off on any device. Apple TV+ costs $4.99 per month. Here’s every Apple original television show and movie available now on Apple TV+, as well as the latest trailers …

Apple TV+ content is available exclusively through the Apple TV app. You can watch on your Apple TV set-top box, iPhone, or iPad as you might expect.

The TV app is also available on other platforms like Amazon Fire TV, Roku, and even the web at tv.apple.com. Read this post for more details on everywhere you can watch Apple TV.

Apple TV+ offers original comedies, dramas, thrillers, documentaries, and kids shows. However, unlike most other streaming services, Apple TV+ does not include a back catalog of any kind.

For your $4.99/month subscription, you can watch all of Apple’s originals — as listed below. You can download to watch offline too. Apple is adding new content every single month.

How to watch the free Apple TV+ shows

The TV app is the exclusive destination for Apple TV+, but the TV app is confusing because it blends together purchasable TV shows and movies from the iTunes Store, which you can buy or rent, the integration of content from other apps like Amazon Prime and BBC iPlayer, and Apple TV Channels.

The Watch Now screen does not really distinguish between content that you own and can watch, and just Apple’s general recommendations. Hopefully, the TV app interface will be revamped soon with better features and easier navigation.

But for the time being, the easiest way to get started with Apple TV+ is to open the TV app, go to the Watch Now tab, and then scroll down until you find the circular Apple TV+ channel icon. You may have to scroll down a lot, and the position of this icon on the page changes periodically.

However, once you locate it, tap that and you will be taken to the Apple TV+ channel page. This shows you all of the Apple TV+ shows and movies available to watch, separated by category like comedy, drama or family fun.

Note that tv.apple.com is very stripped down compared to the native TV app on devices, and it only shows Apple original content. Both the website and the Mac TV app lack key features like the ability to skip intro or automatic next episode suggestions when you finish an episode.

What Apple TV+ shows have been renewed for second seasons?

The first batch of Apple TV+ shows were released on November 1st. As Apple is trying to quickly grow its content library, many of these shows were renewed for second seasons before they even premiered.

So far, Apple has officially renewed Central Park, Dickinson, For All Mankind, Home Before Dark, Little America, Mythic Quest, See, Servant, The Morning Show, Truth Be Told, and Trying.

What is less certain is when we will be able to watch the new episodes. The coronavirus pandemic has disrupted TV production globally with all projects currently unable to film. To quote some specific examples, The Morning Show was about 60% done filming season 2 when they had to halt production, Servant was filming episode 4 of 10 of its second season instalment, and For All Mankind has about one month left of filming. (Dickinson completed season 2 filming last year, and is currently in post-production.)

It is believed these shows were originally planning to release their second seasons about a year after season one, around the October/November/December timeframe. That release date seems less likely now given the delays. It is possible Apple resorts to split seasons; releasing season two of its flagships in two halves, in order to at least get some episodes out this year.

Apple TV+ Program Guide (updated Jul 10, 2020):

A fascinating insight into the machinations of party politics, Boys State debuts on August 10.

Little Voice



Watch Trailer • Released July 10 • 1 season, 8 episodes • TV-14

Featuring original music from Sara Bareilles, Little Voice charts the path of a fledgling music artist trying to make a name for herself in New York.

Greatness Code



Watch Trailer • Released July 10 • 1 season, 7 episodes • TV-PG

A short-form documentary series covering some of the greatest stories in sports. The show features sporting legends including LeBron James, Tom Brady, Alex Morgan, Usain Bolt, Katie Ledecky and more, as they discuss the critical moments that defined their careers.

Dear



Watch Trailer • Released June 5 • 1 season, 10 episodes • TV-14

A documentary inspired by the Apple ad campaign ‘Dear’. The series finds people who have written letters to their heroes, expands on their stories and shows how everyone can be inspired. Famous faces featured include Lin-Manuel Miranda, Stevie Wonder, Oprah Winfrey and Spike Lee.

Central Park



Watch Trailer • Released May 29 • 1 season, 13 episodes • TV-14

Central Park is an animated series from the creator of Bob’s Burgers. With a cast that includes Josh Gad, Kristen Bell and Tituss Burgess, the story revolves around a family of caretakers trying to save the city’s green space from being converted into a shopping mall. The show is an animated musical comedy, with 3-4 original songs per episode.

Trying



Watch Trailer • Released May 1 • 1 season, 8 episodes • TV-14

A fun British comedy revolving around a couple who are unable to conceive, and follow the path of adopting. ‘Trying’ stars Rafe Spall and Esther Smith.

Defending Jacob



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released April 24 • 1 season, 8 episodes • TV-14

Defending Jacob tells the story of a legal attorney whose teenage son has been accused of murder, based off the best-selling book of the same name. The story culminates with an epic twist that you can’t predict. The limited series stars Chris Evans, Jaeden Martell, and Michelle Dockery.

Fraggle Rock: Rock On



Released April 21 • TV-G

Apple reboots the classic Fraggle Rock puppet show with a new series of shorts that show how friendship can bind us all. Amidst coronavirus lockdown measures, ‘Fraggle Rock: Rock On’ is recorded in the homes of the production team, shot on iPhone 11.

Home



Released April 17 • 1 season, 9 episodes • TV-PG

A series that takes you inside some of the world’s most innovative homes, and the people that made them. The optimistic docuseries explores incredible dwellings from places around the world.

Home Before Dark



Watch Trailer • Released April 3 • 1 season, 10 episodes • TV-14

Based on the true story of young investigative reporter Hilde Lysiak, Home Before Dark shows how a young girl uncovers a cold case that even her own family tried to hide.

Oprah’s Book Club



Released March 21 • TV-PG

As everyone self-isolates, Oprah Winfrey hosts video conversations with noted doctors, scientists, recovering COVID-19 patients, and the health workers on the front line fighting this pandemic. Every episode is free to watch, no TV+ subscription required.

Amazing Stories



Watch Trailer • Released March 6 • 1 season, 5 episodes • TV-PG

A remake of the 1980’s classic sci-fi show, the Amazing Stories anthology series is produced by Steven Spielberg. Each episode follows a different tale in a completely different setting. With a family-friendly age rating, the series aims to appeal to parents and children alike.

Visible: Out on Television



Watch Trailer • Released February 14 • 1 season, 5 episodes • TV-14

Described as a five-part documentary series, Visible looks at the portrayal and development of LGBTQ characters on television. It also examines the consequences of coming out in the television industry and how attitudes have evolved, albeit slowly.

Mythic Quest



Watch Trailer • Released February 7 • 1 season, 9 episodes • TV-MA

Mythic Quest: Raven’s Banquet centers on a video game studio working on their next hit game. This sitcom stars Rob McElhenney.

Little America



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released January 17 • 1 season, 8 episodes • TV-14

Little America is a half-hour anthology series that explores amazing tales of immigrants in America, spanning the gamut of human emotion and experience. Each episode is based on a true story from the Epic Magazine feature of the same name.

Truth Be Told



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released December 6, 2019 • 1 season, 8 episodes • TV-MA

True-crime podcaster Poppy Parnell, played by Octavia Spencer, reopens a murder case as new evidence comes to light about the crime she originally investigated and brodcast to the world.

Servant



Watch Trailer • Released November 28, 2019 • 1 season, 10 episodes • TV-MA

A psychological thriller produced by M. Night Shyamalan, told in 30-minute chunks. The family suffers the death of their baby at 13-weeks, and get a substitute baby doll as a kind of therapy. The grief-stricken mother becomes so attached to the doll she hires a mysterious nanny to care for it.

Snoopy in Space



Watch Trailer • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 12 episodes • TV-G

Snoopy and Charlie Brown start a whole new adventure … in space. Follow Snoopy on his steps to becoming a NASA astronaut as the Peanuts gang explores the moon and beyond.

See



Watch Trailer • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 8 episodes • TV-MA

A post-apocalyptic adventure set 600 years in the future. The remaining population of Earth are all blind. A war breaks out as sighted twins are born into a tribe, and the queen of the lands fears the mythic twins will threaten her rule. Jason Momoa and Alfre Woodard stars.

Oprah’s Book Club



Released November 1, 2019 • TV-14

Renowned American talk show host Oprah Winfrey brings her Book Club to Apple TV. Every two months, Oprah records interviews with the author of her book picks at Apple Stores around the world.

The Morning Show



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 10 episodes • TV-MA

A drama exploring the power dynamics in the world of morning news broadcasts. The story opens with anchor Mitch Kessler (Steve Carell) facing sexual misconduct allegations. Newcomer Bradley Jackson (Reese Witherspoon) aspires to replace Kessler in the prime-time slot, and clashes with longtime host Alex Levy (Jennifer Aniston).

Helpsters



Watch Trailer • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 13 episodes • TV-Y

An educational children’s live-action puppet series starring Cody and the Helpsters, from the makers of Sesame Street. The show teaches the fundamentals of problem solving and coding through the lens of activities like party planning, climbing a mountain, and magic tricks.

Ghostwriter



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 13 episodes • TV-G

A reboot of the classic children’s show of the same name, Ghostwriter follows the adventures of four kids in a haunted bookstore. The ghost brings classics of literature to life, and the kids must solve the mysteries that they entail.

For All Mankind



Watch Trailer • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 10 episodes • TV-MA

For All Mankind explores what could have happened if the Russians got to the Moon first in 1969. This inspires the US government to continue the space race. The show forges an alternate timeline of NASA with the first season covering the 1969-1974 period.

Dickinson



Watch Trailer • Released November 1, 2019 • 1 season, 10 episodes • TV-MA

In a modern interpretation of Emily Dickinson’s life, Hailee Steinfeld stars as the misunderstood American poet in her coming-of-age story. Dickinson blends classical themes and carefully-crafted set pieces with anachronistic language and flair, personifications of Death, among other twists.

Greyhound



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released July 10 • PG-13

A cinematic World War II naval thriller starring Tom Hanks. Hanks play Krause, a commander on his maiden voyage to escort a convoy of merchant Allied ships across the North Atlantic. The film follows their quest as they face the German submarines trying to stop them in their tracks.

Dads



Watch Trailer • Released June 19 • PG

A documentary about the father relationship in a family. The 80-minute movie starts with interviews with famous faces but pivots into an exploration of how fathers in ordinary families are dealing with the many stresses of life.

Beastie Boys Story



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released April 24 • TV-MA

The Beastie Boys Story takes a personal look at the band’s highs and lows over the last 40 years. The documentary is narrated by band members Mike Diamond and Adam Horvitz, in an intimate live theater setting, and directed by the award-winning Spike Jonze.

Here We Are: Notes for Living On Planet Earth



Watch TrailerRead Related Book • Released April 17 • TV-G

An animated short film that follows a young boy learning about wonders of nature, in celebration of Earth Day. The story is based on the best-selling book by Oliver Jeffers. The film is narrated by Meryl Streep.

The Banker



Watch Trailer • Released March 20 • PG-13

Based on a true story, the movie follows two businessmen who take on the oppressive racial climate of the 1960s by pretending to be just a janitor and chauffeur, whilst they secretly grow their business empire.

Hala



Watch Trailer • Released December 6, 2019 • R

Hala puts the spotlight on a teenager attempting to balance the innate freedoms of teenage life with her traditional Muslim upbringing. A secret romance could split the family relationship altogether.

The Elephant Queen



Watch Trailer • Released November 1, 2019 • TV-PG

A documentary spanning footage shot over four years of an elephant herd traveling across Africa. The film centers around the matriarch Athena but also pays attention to other animal species encountered along the way.

Coming Soon:

  • Ted Lasso: August 14
  • Boys State: August 14
  • Foundation: 2021

That’s a total of 34 shows and films on the schedule so far. Apple TV+ has a lot more originals in development, with the company committed to adding new content every month. We’ll keep this post updated with the latest official announcements of new Apple TV+ content.

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Apple recloses 10 more stores in Southern California, Ohio, Tennessee

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Apple is reclosing 10 more US stores in California, Ohio, and Tennessee due to deteriorating COVID-19 conditions. The latest round of reclosings adds to 2 stores temporarily shuttered earlier this week for a total of 90 US locations reclosed due to COVID-19.

Staying open while maintaining a safe environment is proving to be a delicate balance for Apple in both the US and elsewhere. Apple recently reclosed all of its stores in the Greater Melbourne area as Victoria reimposed lockdown measures. Stores in Augusta, Georgia and Fresno, California reclosed effective July 8. If regional COVID-19 outbreaks continue popping up in the communities Apple serves, we can expect this pattern of reopening and reclosing to continue for a considerable amount of time.

The following stores will reclose effective July 10. Apple will accept customers with existing online orders and previously scheduled Genius Support appointments at these locations through July 12.

California

  • Brea Mall (Brea)
  • South Coast Plaza (Costa Mesa)
  • Irvine Spectrum Center (Irvine)
  • Mission Viejo (Mission Viejo)
  • Fashion Island (Newport Beach)
  • El Paseo Village (Palm Desert)
  • State Street (Santa Barbara)
  • Promenade Temecula (Temecula)

Ohio

  • Kenwood Towne Centre (Cincinnati)

Tennessee

  • CoolSprings Galleria (Franklin)

Follow our retail guide for in-depth coverage of the latest Apple Store news.

Photo courtesy of Brian King.

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